Swaziland's Flora Red List

Information extracted from Southern African Plant Red Data Lists, Ed. Janice Golding, Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 14, 2002.

The information in this publication was based on previous red data publications, herbarium specimen data, combined with three workshops held between September 2000 and March 2001, involving participants familiar with plants in Swaziland.

Further botanical work carried out in Swaziland has provided more information on a number of species, so some of the information in this publication is now out of date.

Further information is available in the Flora Database for each species by clicking on each species name.

Extinct/Extinct in the Wild

Brachystelma swazicum
Status: EX? Endemism: Near endemic? Distribution: Rocky hills northeast of Mbabane, (Malandzela Area, on the road to Maphalaleni) Known from two records in Swaziland by Compton and Kemp in Mbabane. Update (January 2011): Observed in the wild, Pine Valley.

Dierama elatum
Status: EX Known only from the type collection of 1910 (Stewart 10 K & SAM). Material inadequate, and it may possibly be a hybrid or an albino form (taxonomy uncertain).

Encephalartos relictus
Status: EXW Endemism: Endemic Distribution: Malto Alto (10 km west), Muti Muti farm It is now known only in cultivation.

Pachycarpus stelliceps
Status: EX Endemism: Endemic Distribution: Mbabane Only known from the type collection made near Mbabane. Reported to be extinct.

Critically Endangered

Bachmannia woodii
Status: CR B1B2cC2a Distribution: Jilobi Only one record for this species in Swaziland.

Celtis mildbraedii
Status: CR B1B2cC2a Distribution: Mlawula, Jilobi (east of Siteki), Forbes Reef Very rare in South Africa’s KwaZulu Natal and elsewhere. Known from a few small forest patches in Swaziland.

Cheirostylis nuda
Status: CR B1B2cC2b Threats: Mining Distribution: Bomvu Ridge (Ngwenya Mountain— Malolotja) Appears to be extremely rare everywhere. There is apparently only a single collection from Swaziland. Also known from dune forest in South Africa, and as far afield as Tanzania and Madagascar. Flowers from August to September. Iron ore mining is a threat in Swaziland.

Crassula vaginata subsp. minuta
Status: CR A1cB1B2ab Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Urban expansion, habitat degradation Distribution: North of Mbabane (possibly Nkwalini landfill site) Found on rocky granite hills. Could be extirpated in the next five to ten years. Landfill site is a serious threat to locality, seriously threatened. The species is known only from this site in Swaziland.

Encephalartos heenanii
Status: CR A1acdC2a Threats: Collection Distribution: Ngwenya Ridge, Malolotja In 1985, 100 plants were counted. In 1999, only 20 plants could be located. These plants are known from a locality where no recruitment seems to be taking place. A few years ago, this species was also found in a protected area in Swaziland but in very small numbers. Also known from South Africa. Threatened by illegal collectors.

Encephalartos laevifolius
Status: CR A2deB2bD Threats: Pest/disease Distribution: Malolotja In Swaziland, the effects of a pathogen are evident. Threatened by illegal collectors.

Encephalartos ngoyanus
Status: CR C2aD In Swaziland, it is known from a single locality as the distribution literally tips into Swaziland. The locality is not threatened, and no people live in that area. May become threatened by illegal collectors.

Encephalartos striatus
Status: CR A1acdA2cB1B2abcde Threats: Collection Distribution: Umbeluzi Gorge of Mlawula Occurs in the shade of Androstachys johnsonii forest. This species used to be extremely common, but this has changed. The species has suffered massive decline in the last 10 years, estimated at more than 80%. It is found in an extremely accessible area. Threatened by illegal collectors.

Euphorbia keithii
Status: CR B1B2ceC2a Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Agriculture, urban expansion, habitat degradation, forestry exploitation, harvesting, alien plant infestation Distribution: Stegi, Usuthu Gorge (?), Sitsatsaweni (northeast of Siteki), Oribi Ranch, Mlawula Species protected under CITES. Habitat specific, habitat decline. Species prefers hot, dry, exposed areas. Restricted to the Lebombo Mountains.

Ficus sansibarica subsp. sansibarica
Status: CR B1B2cC2a Distribution: Sihoya

Gardenia thunbergia
Status: CR C2b Threats: Deforestation Distribution: Jilobi Forest (Lebombo) This species is very well represented outside Swaziland, common in coastal areas from as far afield as the Eastern Cape in South Africa. Only a few individuals seen. Known from a small subpopulation.

Kniphofia tysonii subsp. lebomboensis
Status: CR A2B1B2bceC1C2b Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Collection, alien plant infestation, road network Distribution: Lebombo (South of Stegi) Grew in a pan, but a road has been developed near the locality. High density area. Used for its medicinal properties. Reported to occur in South Africa.

Kniphofia umbrina
Status: CR B1B2ce Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Habitat degradation Distribution: Mbabane, Forbes Reef, Hwane Confined to small area near Mbabane. Only eight very small subpopulations are known. It is highly fragmented and declining due to habitat destruction.

Syncolostemon comptonii
Status: CR A1cB1B2a Endemism: Endemic Threats: Damming Distribution: Malolotja, Maguga Threatened by construction of a new dam at Maguga. The species is known from only a single locality.

Warburgia salutaris
Status: CR A1bcd Threats: Collection Distribution: Malolotja, possibly in Lomati Valley Only six trees observed outside protected areas in Swaziland (as reported by conservation authorities in Swaziland). Very few individuals in protected areas, but these are regenerating and are currently not being utilised.

Endangered

Adenium multiflorum
Status: EN A2cdB1B2abcC1 Threats: Agriculture Distribution: Near Tambuthi, Big Bend Very restricted in Swaziland. One large scattered subpopulation. Sugarcane farming and lower Usuthu development are threats. Well represented outside Swaziland. The species nomenclature is not always recognised or in use in other countries.

Adenium swazicum
Status: EN A1acdB1B2abcd Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Agriculture, damming, collection, alien plant infestation, habitat degradation Distribution: West of Lebombo, Big Bend area and northwards Thorny thicket on brackish plains. This succulent is protected by legislation. Its habitat is also very fragmented. Distribution mainly from north of Komatipoort in South Africa to Big Bend in Swaziland. The main threat is urban development.

Aloe albida
Status: EN B1B2cde Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: Malolotja, Piggs Peak Tips into Swaziland from the Barberton area in South Africa. Barberton is the type locality. Apparently only one locality outside Swaziland.

Aloe chortolirioides var. chortolirioides
Status: EN B1B2abC2a Distribution: Bulembu area, Barberton Mountains, Malolotja, Hawane Waterfall, Piggs Peak (gold mine) On rocky open outcops. Is a fire dependent species. listed as Rare for Swaziland in previous RDLs. The red form is found in the Bulembu area. Common between Bulembu (Swaziland) and Barberton Mountains (South Africa). Generally known from Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga in South Africa. Synonyms: Aloe chortolirioides A.Berger var. boastii (Letty) Reynolds

Aloe dewetii
Status: EN A1acd Threats: Collection Distribution: Hlatikulu (Grand Valley) Listed by WCMC’s RDL as Vulnerable for Swaziland and previously Rare. Previously found in the Hlatikulu (1970s), but could not be found there recently. Is a spotted leaf aloe eaten by people. Threatened by a high population density.

Bowiea volubilis subsp. volubilis
Status: EN A1d Threats: Collection Being severely depleted in Swaziland. Many extinct localities. Used for treating fractures (medicinal). Very common on market places. Known from outside Swaziland. Also heavily utilised in South Africa.

Brachystelma coddii
Status: EN B1B2cC2aD Distribution: Malolotja, Bomvu Ridge, Mbabane, Piggs Peak Three records in Swaziland, including from a protected area, by Compton, Braun and Kemp.

Celtis gomphophylla
Status: EN D B1 B2c C2a Distribution: Jilobi, Carmichael’s Farm, Muti Muti More common than Celtis mildbraedii. Only in South Africa according to PRECIS.

Ceropegia cimiciodora
Status: EN B1B2c Threats: Grazing Distribution: Ingwavuma Poort Restricted distribution. In a previous RDL, it is considered Endangered in South Africa’s former Transvaal. Found in a restricted area. Grazing by cattle is a threat.

Cyrtanthus nutans
Status: EN A1c Threats: Damming Distribution: Komati Bridge, Magwya Farm area, between Piggs Peak and Mbabane

Disa intermedia
Status: EN B1B2cC2a Endemism: Endemic Threats: Habitat degradation Distribution: Forbes Reef, near Mbabane, Malolotja, near Oshoek Grows at an altitude of 1,000 m. Was considered to be common at one time, but due to continued habitat destruction, it is rapidly declining. Flowers in January. Found in highveld grassland.

Duvernoia aconitiflora
Status: EN B1B2cD2 Threats: Urban expansion Distribution: Ingwavuma Gorge (Lebombo District) Could be in forest or grassland. The closest locality to Swaziland is in the southern highveld in South Africa, some 100 km away. High human population growth the area constitutes a threat.

Encephalartos aplanatus
Status: EN A1acdB2abcde Distribution: Mlawula, Goba road just north of Siteki, South of Siteki toward the farm Muti Muti, previously on Muti Muti This species is also known from Mozambique. This species was described from a subpopulation of about six individuals near the Swaziland South Africa border. Subsequently, several subpopulations have been discovered. Threatened by illegal collectors.

Encephalartos lebomboensis
Status: EN A1acdeA2deB1B2abcde Threats: Harvesting, collection Distribution: Mangana, Mbuzini, Malto Alto, Lebombo, Stataweni, Mangana All the localities mentioned are primarily relicts. Subpopulations suffered a measurable decline. In 1981, the subpopulation was observed to be abundant. Almost 20 years later, there has been a 25% decline. Threatened by illegal collectors.

Erica swaziensis
Status: EN B1B2aD Endemism: Endemic Distribution: Mbabane, Forbes Reef, Black Umbeluzi Valley Has a very localised distribution around Mbabane. Wetland species.

Heywoodia lucens
Status: EN B1B2cC2aD Distribution: Jilobi, Siteki Recorded in Swaziland by Kemp and Miller.

Lannea antiscorbutica
Status: EN DB1B2aC2b Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: Umbeluzi Gorge (Mlawula) Previously only known from a single locality in South Africa near the Swaziland Mozambique border.

Melanospermum italae
Status: EN B1B2cC2a Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: Malolotja (Ngwenya Hills), Motjane On sandy places around rock sheets. In South Africa, it is known from the Piet Retief area and Itala.

Melanospermum swazicum
Status: EN B1B2aC2a Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Fire, grazing, habitat degradation Distribution: Mbabane, Malolotja, possibly Ngome, Siphocosini Grows on hills. Subpopulation at Ngome may be a different species. Only one locality known outside Swaziland.

Orbea gerstneri subsp. gerstneri
Status: EN B1B2c Endemism: Endemic Threats: Habitat degradation, grazing Distribution: Ingwavuma Poort One subpopulation said to be in Swaziland, but further taxonomic scrutiny is required. Partial habitat decline induced by cattle grazing is a threat.

Oxyanthus pyriformis subsp. pyriformis
Status: EN B1B2cD Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: Jilobi (Lebombo), Carmichael’s Farm The species is at the end of its distribution range in Swaziland, better known from KwaZulu Natal (South Africa). The two known localities in Swaziland are quite a distance apart. Dune forest.

Protea comptonii
Status: EN B1B2cD Endemism: Near endemic? Distribution: Bulembu, Malolotja One outlying subpopulation in KwaZulu Natal (South Africa), although more common in northern and northeastern parts of South Africa.

Prunus africana
Status: EN C2aD Distribution: Near Malolotja (Forbes Reef), near and in Mbabane Also known from South Africa (KwaZulu Natal) and further afield. Is widely utilised for its medicinal purposes.

Selago swaziensis
Status: EN B1B2acC2a Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Urban expansion, fire Distribution: Hills near Dalriach (Mbabane), Usuthu Forest, Miller’s Falls, Makhosini Hills, Ukuthula Known only from a single, highly threatened locality.

Siphonochilus aethiopicus
Status: EN A1d Threats: Collection Distribution: Malolotja, Balegane, Komati Valley, Piggs Peak Generally heavily utilised everywhere. Was on the previous Swaziland RDL as Rare. The Malalotja subpopulation is well known and utilised by local herbalists, even though it is located within a protected area. There are unconfirmed reports that several subpopulations are protected from over utilisation through traditional laws, but this cannot be confirmed. Well represented outside Swaziland.

Streptocarpus daviesii
Status: EN B1B2b Endemism: Near-endemic Threats: Urban expansion, habitat degradation Distribution: Mbabane hills Restricted global distribution. Known only from a single locality in Swaziland.

Vitellariopsis dispar
Status: EN B1B2cD Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: Mlawula, Siteki Restricted. Only one locality outside Swaziland. Moist forest.

Vulnerable

Afroaster pseudobakerianus
Status: VU D2 Endemism: Endemic Distribution: Poliniane River, Ukuthula (Mbabane Division), Verdun (Hlatikulu Division) Restricted distribution.

Allophylus chaunostachys
Status: VU B1B2c Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Urban expansion Distribution: Makwonjwa Found at altitude 1,730 m. Reported to be common. Human impact near border post is a threat.

Aloe ecklonis
Status: VU B1B2cD2 Distribution: Malolotja area, Forbes Reef, between Motjane and Oshoek Tips into Swaziland. Mainly a South African distribution. Very common and widespread in South Africa. Synonyms: Aloe kraussii Baker; Aloe boylei Baker

Aloe kniphofioides
Status: VU A2cB1B2c Threats: Collection, harvesting, grazing, fire, urban expansion Distribution: Malolotja, Forbes Reef, Nyonyane Sisa Ranch, Bulembu, Mbabane, Mankayane Grass aloe. Common in Malalotja. Not protected in Forbes Reef. Used in Nyonyane Sisa. Medicinal usage, cattle and resettlement are further threats. Widespread in South Africa.

Aloe minima
Status: VU A1cB1B2bD1 Endemism: Near endemic? Threats: Road network Distribution: Forbes Reef, Malolotja, Ngwenya, Motjane Scattered. Very small and inconspicuous. In previous RDLs, considered Rare in Swaziland. Very common in South Africa (Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga). Synonyms: Aloe minima Baker var. blyderivierensis (Groenew.) Reynolds; Aloe parviflora Baker

Asclepias eminens
Status: VU B1B2cD2 Threats: Grazing, soil erosion, fire Distribution: Mpisi, Malkerns, St. Josephs, Hlatikulu, Manzini A widely scattered but uncommon species. In Zimbabwe it is a distinct ecotype. Edible plant.

Dianthus mooiensis subsp. kirkii
Status: VU C1C2a Threats: Collection Distribution: Malolotja, Piggs Peak, Usuthu, Maguga Dam In South Africa, found in the Magaliesberg and Witwatersrand (possibly declining over much of its range). Has horticultural potential. In Swaziland, it is used to make the royal soap for the King. The Swaziland subpopulations are scattered and locally rare. Utilisation is a serious threat.

Encephalartos paucidentatus
Status: VU A1cdC2aD2 Distribution: Makonwya, Malolotja Found in a protected area. The species is found along the Swaziland South African border. Also known from South Africa where it is threatened. Threatened by illegal collectors.

Encephalartos senticosus
Status: VU C2aD2 Distribution: Lebombo, Usuthu, Bvane catchment Extremely inaccessible habitat. The species is found along the Lebombo border. Threatened by illegal collectors.

Ficus polita subsp. polita
Status: VU D2 Distribution: Mlawula (Umbeluzi Gorge, Mahlabashane), Jilobi

Gladiolus brachyphyllus
Status: VU A2c Threats: Urban expansion Distribution: Umbeluzi and Umlola Reserves, Mlawula Several subpopulations found in the Kruger National Park (South Africa); recorded from Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga (South Africa). Only single plants have been found in Swaziland. Very seldomly seen.

Haemanthus pauculifolius
Status: VU C2bD2 Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Damming, grazing Distribution: Maguga Found along the Komati River. Recently discovered in Swaziland from only one locality. In South Africa, it is known from only a few localities in fairly close proximity to the Swaziland border.

Helichrysum milleri
Status: VU D2 Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: Barberton Mountains On forest margins in grassland. Known mainly from the Barberton mountains in South Africa.

Orthochilus chloranthus
Status: Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: Mbabane, Waverley Mine, Fonteyn Restricted distribution.

Protea parvula
Status: VU B1B2cC2a Distribution: Timbuti Farm, Hawane, Malolotja Common in the former Transvaal of South Africa.

Streptocarpus davyi
Status: VU BlB2bD2 Endemism: Endemic Threats: Urban expansion, habitat degradation Distribution: 40 km around Mbabane (hills), near Mankaiana, Forbes Reef, Makhosini Hills, Makhaya. On peaty soil on granite outcrops and is fragmented. Known from a number of localities but it is not widespread. Habitat specific in shade and soil. It is uncommon.

Streptocarpus wilmsii
Status: VU B1B2c Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Urban expansion Distribution: Devils Bridge, Kings Forest, Mbabane, Hilltop, Ukuthula

Syncolostemon stalmansii
Status: VU D2 Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Afforestation Distribution: Luhhumaneni School Recently described species known only from Songimvelo (South Africa) and Swaziland (Malalotja). Occurs on Barberton Belt and known from different soil types, including serpentine soils. Few localities are known and it has a restricted global distribution.

Xerophyta villosa
Status: VU D2 Distribution: Luhumannei School (Malolotja) Found on serpentine soils in Swaziland.

Lower Risk

Acrotome thorncroftii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula, Lomahasha, Tulwana, Blue Jay Ranch Previously listed as Rare. Known from about five herbarium collections in Swaziland.

Alepidea parva
Status: LR lc Threats: Collection, mining Distribution: Ngwenya Mountains near Mbabane, Malolotja Reported to be threatened outside Swaziland. Used for its medicinal properties.

Aloe rupestris
Status: LR lc Distribution: Umbeluzi Gorge, Mnyame, Libertas, Lebombo Was listed previously as Rare for Swaziland.

Aloe sharoniae
Status: LR lc Threats: Grazing, alien plant infestation, harvesting Distribution: Lebombo, Nkambeni, Sishaweni Forest Company Taxonomically unique and this nomenclature is used in Swaziland. Known from the Lebombo where it is rare. It is widespread. Eaten by people.

Aloe vanbalenii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula, lower East side of Umbeluzi river, Lebombo In river valleys. Uncommon. Was listed as Rare for Swaziland in previous RDLs. Only in the northern Lebombo Mountains.

Alsophila capensis
Status: LR lc Limited habitat. Very well represented outside Swaziland.

Aneilema dregeanum
Status: LR lc Distribution: Ingwavuma Poort, Mtindekwa, Mlawula Three localities identifed in Swaziland from collections by Compton and Braun. Also known from South Africa, and reported also to occur in Zimbabwe.

Aristida transvaalensis
Status: LR lc Distribution: Malolotja, Malandzela, Miomba, Forbes Reef Three records in a protected area by Braun. Widespread in South Africa.

Asparagus saundersiae
Status: LR lc Endemism: Endemic Distribution: Mbabane area, Malolotja Occurs in shady places at foot of rocks or forest margins. Very similar to Eragrostis curvula.

Australluma ubomboensis
Status: LR lc Endemism: Endemic? Distribution: Lebombo Was listed previously as Rare for Swaziland. Is common in the Lebombo Mountains.

Begonia sonderiana
Status: LR lc

Bulbine inflata
Status: LR lc Distribution: Manzini, Mbabane, Usuthu, Malolotja, Bulembu

Cephalaria petiolata
Status: LR lc Distribution: Malolotja, Forbes Reef Road One of the four records in a protected area. The synonym is not used in Swaziland. It is common outside Swaziland.

Chionanthus foveolatus subsp. foveolatus
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula, Jilobi, Umbeluzi Gorge Known from only a single protected locality in Swaziland.

Chlorophytum haygarthii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Forbes Reef Road, Malolotja At least two records from Swaziland by Compton and Heath. Common in Mpumalanga and KwaZulu Natal (South Africa).

Cleome macrophylla
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula (Lebombo), Mbeluzi Gorge

Clivia miniata var. miniata
Status: LR nt Distribution: Lebombo, Piggs Peak area Forest species. Well known from South Africa. Is being removed from the wild.

Cordyla africana
Status: LR lc Very rare and marginal in Swaziland, often occurring as single plants. It is a widespread tropical plant. Wild Mango.

Crassula acinaciformis
Status: LR lc Distribution: Ukuthula, Hlatikhulu, Komati Bridge, Mlawula, Maguga, Siteki, Umbeluzi Gorge One protected locality.

Crassula orbicularis
Status: LR lc Only one record for Swaziland by Kemp.

Crinum graminicola
Status: LR lc Threats: Agriculture Distribution: Mlawula, Hlane (Simunye) One subpopulation known. Only in South Africa, according to PRECIS. Sugar cultivation is a threat.

Croton madandensis
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula, Lebombo Mountains Shrub or tree.

Cussonia nicholsonii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula (S), Siteki Two records, one in a protected area. Known collections in Swaziland by Culverwell and Kemp.

Cyphia bolusii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mbabane (3 pops), Dalrich, Mbabane, Emlembe, Malkerns On serpentine soils.

Cyrtanthus bicolor
Status: LR lc Threats: Collection Distribution: Malolotja, Umbeluzi Valley, Mbabane (Umbeluzi Valley), Forbes Reef, Komati River Valley Was on the previous Swaziland RDL as Rare. Found in grassland. Eaten as a vegetable.

Dierama mobile
Status: LR nt Threats: Habitat degradation Distribution: Oshoek, 15 km North of Forbes Reef, Komati River, Malandzela Found in Swaziland and South Africa. Fairly widespread. Wetland species.

Dietes flavida
Status: LR lc Distribution: Malolotja and Mlawula Reserves, Lebombo Has a disjunct distribution and scarce everywhere.

Diospyros galpinii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mankayane, Maphalaleni, Miller, Mantenga Highveld grassland species.

Disa extinctoria
Status: LR nt Distribution: Unspecified locality in Swaziland Rare, occurs in damp grassland and swamps at an altitude of 1,000–1,300 m. Flowers from December to January. Also known from the former Transvaal in South Africa. Its status in previous RDLs is Indeterminate.

Disa stachyoides
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlembe, Malolotja Widespread in many parts of South Africa. Also reported in Lesotho.

Drypetes mossambicensis
Status: LR lc Distribution: Umbeluzi Gorge (Mlawula) Known only from a southern locality in Swaziland which is relatively safe. Known to occur outside Swaziland, where it is common.

Ehrharta erecta var. erecta
Status: LR lc Distribution: Malolotja Taxonomy needs attention.

Erica cerinthoides var. barbertona
Status: LR lc Distribution: Malolotja, Waverley Mine, Mhlangamphepha Valley, Piggs Peak Two records in Malolotja by Compton and Braun.

Erica oatesii var. latifolia
Status: LR nt Endemism: Near endemic? Distribution: Usuthu, on the road to Hlatikulu Limited distribution. Said to be rare. Possibly a taxonomic problem.

Eriosema ellipticifolium
Status: LR lc Distribution: Malolotja, Malandzela, Mbabane One record in Swaziland by Heath.

Eriosema transvaalense
Status: LR nt Threats: Damming Distribution: Malolotja, Maguga Has a globally restricted distribution.

Eumorphia swaziensis
Status: LR nt Endemism: Endemic? Threats: Urban expansion Distribution: Mbabane District, Black Umbeluzi Valley Very restricted and suggested that it could be threatened. Several hundred individuals. On the edge of an urban/semi urban environment. Should be monitored. Possibly also occurs in South Africa.

Euphorbia clavigera
Status: LR lc Endemism: Endemic? Threats: Grazing Distribution: Manzini area, Siteki, Siphofaneni, Manzini Wild collected plants are known from cultivation. Easy to grow from seed, attractive species. Restricted distribution.

Euphorbia grandicornis subsp. grandicornis
Status: LR lc Distribution: Chindene, Big Bend Very common where it occurs. Also in Ndumo, South Africa.

Ficus bubu
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula, Manzinyama, Umbeluzi Poort, Siteki, Sihaya In Androstachys forests in Mlawula.

Gasteria batesiana var. batesiana
Status: LR nt Threats: Collection Distribution: Umbeluzi Gorge, Mnyami On cliffs. Four small disjunct subpopulations in Swaziland. Collected for medicinal and horticultural purposes.

Gonioma kamassi
Status: LR nt Distribution: Mbabane, Msunduza, Foot of Lubor In forest. Common in the eastern and southern Cape forests of South Africa. Probably not used and therefore maybe not threatened. Single trees. Unusual distribution, not common in Swaziland. Frequently burnt. Very disjunct.

Haworthiopsis limifolia var. ubomboensis
Status: LR nt Endemism: Near endemic Threats: Collection Distribution: Siteki, Umbeluzi Gorge, Mnyame In forests. Limited in distribution. Not uncommon. Known from two subpopulations in Swaziland, but restricted to the Lebombo. Known only from Ironwood forests. Collected for medicinal and horticultural purposes. Also reported from the Lebombo in South Africa and Mozambique.

Heteropyxis canescens
Status: LR lc Distribution: Malolotja, Mbabane, Black Umbeluzi Valley, Palwane Valley Was considered previously to be Rare in Swaziland. Common in Malolotja.

Heterosamara galpinii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Devils Bridge, Kings Forest (Bulembu) In South Africa, it has been categorised as Rare and even Endangered in previous RDLs. Occurs in unprotected small localities.

Ledebouria petiolata
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula, Red Tiger Ranch

Leucospermum gerrardii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Malolotja (and surroundings) Fairly common in Mpumalanga (South Africa). Locally common, but restricted distribution. Subpopulation stable. Can survive fires. Habitat specific, soapstone.

Lobelia corniculata
Status: LR lc Distribution: Lebombo, Siteki, Mlawula Was listed as Indeterminate/Uncertain in previous RDLs. Known from very few herbarium collections.

Manilkara concolor
Status: LR lc Distribution: Bulunga Poort, Mlawula, Siteki, Umbeluzi, Timbutini, Manzini Recorded in Swaziland by Compton, Culverwell and Kemp.

Manilkara discolor
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula, Carmichael’s, Mzimpofu River Only in South Africa according to PRECIS, but observed by several people in the wild in Swaziland.

Margaritaria discoidea var. nitida
Status: LR lc

Merwilla plumbea
Status: LR nt Threats: Collection Distribution: Malolotja, Usuthu, Mbabane Widespread. Suggested to be classified as Vulnerable. Widely used and still abundant. In remote places it is frequent. Collected for medicinal purposes.

Nerine angustifolia
Status: LR lc Distribution: Ngwenya Mts, Forbes Reef Road, Malolotja Recorded in Swaziland by Compton and Braun.

Nesaea alata
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula In or near shallow pans. Only recorded twice, once from Kruger National Park (South Africa) and once in the Lebombo Mountains.

Newtonia hildebrandtii var. hildebrandtii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula, Manzimnyama (Nyame), Umbeluzi Gorge, Black Mbeluzi River Recorded in Swaziland by Culverwell.

Orbea paradoxa
Status: LR nt Threats: Mining Distribution: Ngwenya Listed as Endangered in South Africa’s former Transvaal in previous RDLs.

Orthosiphon vernalis
Status: LR nt Endemism: Endemic Distribution: Manzini, Mankaiana, Bhunya area, Evelyn Biring Bridge

Pachycarpus galpinii
Status: LR lc Threats: Agriculture, grazing Distribution: Barberton Mountains, Mbabane, Usuthu, Forbes Reef, Maphalaleni This is essentially a highveld species. Cattle is a serious threat.

Pavetta barbertonensis
Status: LR lc Distribution: Siteki, Kings Forest, Lebombo Mnts., Palata, Mlawula Was on the previous Swaziland RDL as Rare.

Polystachya albescens subsp. imbricata
Status: LR nt Threats: Afforestation, grazing Distribution: Gobholo Recently found in southern KwaZulu Natal forests of South Africa. A sewerage plant in Swaziland may pose a threat.

Polystachya zuluensis
Status: LR nt Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: Usuthu Forest, Mzimba Mnts., Mbabane North In rocky highveld areas, abundant, on Xerophyta. Locally common.

Psilotum nudum
Status: LR lc Distribution: Umbeluzi Gorge, Malolotja, Mlawula A cosmopolitan species, but seldom common anywhere. Widespread in Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, Australia, Polynesia, Spain, the Americas and so forth.

Schizochilus cecilii subsp. culveri
Status: LR nt Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: NW Swaziland, Malolotja Confined to the mountains between Barberton (South Africa) and northwestern Swaziland. Flowers from December to January.

Scolopia oreophila
Status: LR lc Threats: Agriculture, deforestation, afforestation Distribution: Manzini, Shiselweni, on Mkondo River In Swaziland, its main centre is on the Mkondo River. Its habitat appears to be stable. The threats are not resulting in any real declines. In future lack of suitable habitat may play a role. Subsistence farming is a threat.

Searsia grandidens
Status: LR lc Distribution: Komati Valley, Ngomini, Mayami, Mankayane, 25 km North of Tulwane site On forest margins. Although widespread, it is never plentiful.

Senecio mlilwanensis
Status: LR nt Endemism: Endemic Distribution: Mbeluzi Valley, Millers Falls, Mbabane and Mlilwane, Mantenga? Rocky outcrops. In Swaziland, mostly prevalent on private land. Also found at Mantenga where it is partially protected.

Streptocarpus confusus subsp. lebomboensis
Status: LR lc Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: Mlawula, Mnyame, Jilobi Scattered in moist forest of the Lebombo.

Streptocarpus dunnii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mbabane, Forbes Reef, Motjane, Gobolondo, Piggs Peak, Malolotja Narrow distribution. Mainly known from the Barberton area in South Africa. Habitat specific on granite.

Streptocarpus micranthus
Status: LR lc Threats: Grazing, mining Distribution: Kings Forest, Devils Bridge Restricted distribution. The species occurs in a protected area in Swaziland. However, it does not appear in PRECIS.

Syncolostemon albiflorus
Status: LR lc Distribution: Ngwenya Mountains Known from collections in Swaziland by Compton and Dlamini.

Syncolostemon concinnus
Status: LR lc Distribution: Malolotja, Mankayane, Hlatikhulu

Syncolostemon modestus
Status: LR lc Distribution: Bomvu Ridge, Havelock, Gege, Forbes Reef Recorded in Swaziland by Compton.

Tephrosia cordata
Status: LR lc Distribution: Malolotja, Havelock, Mbabane

Tephrosia gobensis
Status: LR lc Endemism: Endemic ? Distribution: Mlawula, Siteki

Tephrosia grandiflora
Status: LR lc Distribution: Blue Jay Ranch (Mlawula), Mananga Mount, Siteki Recorded in Swaziland by Compton.

Tephrosia kraussiana
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula Known from collections in Swaziland by Culverwell.

Thorncroftia longiflora
Status: LR lc Endemism: Near endemic Distribution: Malolotja Common in Malolotja.

Thunbergia pondoensis
Status: LR lc Distribution: Mlawula, Komati Bridge

Tinnea barbata
Status: LR lc Distribution: Wyldesdale, Malolotja Recorded in Swaziland by Compton, Heath and Braun.

Tinnea galpinii
Status: LR lc Distribution: Hlatikhulu, Mlawula, Siteki, Cecil Marks Pass Recorded in Swaziland by Compton and Culverwell.

Uvaria lucida subsp. virens
Status: LR lc Distribution: Lebombo, Mlawula

Watsonia bella
Status: LR lc Threats: Grazing, fire Distribution: Malolotja, Hlatikulu, Forbes Reef, Mbabane, 5 km NE of Motjane, Malalotja In Swaziland, grazing by cattle is a threat. Common in South Africa.

Xylopia odoratissima
Status: LR lc Distribution: Umbelzi Gorge, Mhlumeni Border

    King Sobhuza II Park

  • (+268) 2416 1179, 2416 1489
  • (+268) 2416 1875
  • ksmp@sntc.org.sz

    Stay Up to Date With What's Happening

    Swaziland National Trust Commission Headquarters

  • Swaziland National Museum
    P.O. Box 100
    Lobamba, Mbabane
    Swaziland
    H107
  • (+268) 2416 1489/1179
  • info@sntc.org.sz